A guide for sesame breeders to develop new resistant varieties

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A guide for sesame breeders to develop new resistant varieties

Sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L.) is primarily known for its adaptability to a domain of soil types, drought tolerance, nutritive substances and high value oil quality. Seeds of sesame are tiny and oil rich which are used for many purposes such as making margarine, sweets, cakes and bread. Sesame seeds are also used in pharmaceutical products because of its medicinal properties.

Fungal pathogens are responsible for causing many diseases in sesame crop which limited the production of this crop in Egypt and climatic change is aggravating their impact. Sesame Fusarium wilt is a destructive disease worldwide which is reported to cause 15 – 30 % losses of yield. Many fungicides are available for plant fungal diseases but the excessive use of chemicals caused their accumulation resulted in soil degradation and poor crop productivity. Plants often develop resistance against these chemicals and these are not eco-friendly also increases the harmful effect of climate changes. In order to cope up with the climate change, new resistant varieties are needed.

Asian Journal of Plant Sciences

There is a dire need to develop new crop varieties that are resistant to plant pathogens in order to control plant diseases and give high yield. Therefore, a research was designed by Sahab et al. (2021) in order to identify high yield lines, to find out the phytochemical components in the ethanol extracts of genotypes and to determine some markers related to genes controlling the Fusarium wilt resistance trait. The research manuscript has been published in Asian Journal of Plant Sciences.

This research was comprised of four axes i. e. evaluation of distinct lines based on the seed yield, evaluation based on fungal diseases resistant, the detection of some antibiotic polyphenolic compositions in genotypes and determine molecular markers linked resistance to Fusarium wilt to identify high yielding lines and to find out the phytochemical components in the ethanol extracts of genotypes by GC-MS analysis and determine molecular markers linked resistance to Fusarium wilt in new sesame lines.

For this study, four elite sesame lines and commercial variety Shandaweel were evaluated based on seed yield ha–1 over two seasons and they tested for seed-borne fungi. Then these genotypes were examined using R-ISSR.

The results of this study showed that the highest yield was obtained from Shandaweel. It was also observed that Line C3.8 has defense response genes against this fungal disease that produces bioactive chemical compound that play a significant role in conferred resistance. Line C3.8 showed low incidence and highest germination. This study exhibited that R-ISSR technique could be used to select the resistant and susceptible lines to Fusarium wilt. It was shown that R-ISSR can be effectively generated more markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance as compared to RAPD and ISSR when used alone.

In essence, Line C3.8 is offering aspects to form new varieties resistant to Fusarium wilt disease in sesame. And, this line has antifungal compounds that can use as a basis for generate new broad-spectrum antimicrobial formulations. This study will be guidance for sesame breeder to develop new resistant varieties against Fusarium wilt disease.

Keywords:

Sesamum indicum L., Sesame Fusarium wilt, Genotype, Soil borne diseases, Fusarium wilt resistance, R-ISSR, High yield lines

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