Indonesia is an agriculture based country, therefore; extensive and sustainable animal production is mandatory here. But, waste from livestock is causing major global environmental problems. It is reported that poultry waste and dairy feces emit ammonia (NH3) on a huge level, leading to greenhouse gas emission1,2.
This emission of ammonia can cause serious environmental issues.Exceeding elevated amount of nitrogen possess unfavorable effects including contamination of drinking water, climatic changes, acid rains, ecosystem changes and leaching of important substances3.
Composting is a commonly used procedure to decompose agricultural wastes. Other than bacteria and archaea, fungi are also reported as a potential decomposer but its role in the composting system is not clear yet.
Fungi can decompose some slowly biodegradable materials such as cellulose and lignin4. Furthermore, some fungi also show heterotrophic nitrification which is associated with lignin degradation. Hence, their function in N transformations during process of composting should be considered5.
Accordingly, scientists conducted a new research to recognize strains bacteria in soil in order to assess their ability for growing in ammonium and animal’s urine high content medium as well as to study thecapability to lessen ammonium concentration from the liquid medium6.
For this purpose, isolation of particular bacterial strain was done through 1/100 nutrient agar with elevated concentration of (NH4)2SO4 as an organic ammonium stressor. Afterwards, selected strain was identified on the basis of morphology as well as biochemical and molecular identifications. The reduction of ammonium was also measured6.
At the end of this experiment, the indigenous ammonia-oxidizing bacterium was successfully isolated from biological deodorization plants at poultry farm and it was identified as Pseudomonas sp., LS3T. Moreover, this strain can grow both in medium with elevated ammonium and animals urine medium as well. This phenomenon points out that it can also serve as microbial manure deodorization additive.
- Chadwick, D., S. Sommer, R. Thorman, D. Fangueiro, L. Cardenas, B. Amon and T. Misselbrook, 2011. Manure management: Implications for greenhouse gas emissions. Feed Sci. Technol., 166: 514-531.
- Posmanik, R., A. Gross and A. Nejidat, 2014. Effect of high ammonia loads emitted from poultry-manure digestion on nitrification activity and nitrifier-community structure in a compost biofilter. Eng., 62: 140-147.
- Ndegwa, P.M., A.N. Hristov, J. Arogo and R.E. Sheffield, 2008. A review of ammonia emission mitigation techniques for concentrated animal feeding operations. Eng., 100: 453-469.
- Selvam, A., Z. Zhao, Y. Li, Y. Chen, K. Leung and J. Wong, 2013. Degradation of tetracycline and sulfadiazine during continuous thermophilic composting of pig manure and sawdust. Technol., 34: 2433-2441.
- Lin, S.Y., Y.C. Liu, A. Hameed, Y.H. Hsu, W.A. Lai, F.T. Shen and C.C. Young, 2013. Azospirillum fermentarium nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from a fermenter. Int. J. Syst. Evolutionary Microbiol., 63: 3762-3768.
- NanungAgusFitriyanto, Atik Winarti, Fatih Akbar Imara, Yuny Erwanto, Takashi Hayakawa and Tomoyuki Nakagawa, 2017. Identification and Growth Characters of Nitrifying Pseudomonas, LS3K Isolated from Odorous Region of Poultry Farm. J. Biol. Sci., 17: 1-10.