Sausage is a processed form of meat. The meat is minced, mashed, mixed with selected seasonings and transferred to an artificial container. The sausage can either be cooked, smoked or grilled1. In order to enhance the shelf life of sausages different chemical based preservatives such as; nitrite are used by many industries. The preservatives used should be safe for health; thus, natural compounds, such as bacteriocin are good candidates for preserving sausages.
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) can produce bacteriocin as a bio-preservative and have been widely used. Bacteriocin can inhibit the development of pathogens that have a close relationship with bacteriocin-producing bacteria. Bacteriocin is also stable against changes in pH and temperature2.
Lactobacillus plantarum is a Lactic Acid bacterium and is naturally found in beef. It produces a bacteriocin known as plantaricin. It has different isolates in Indonesian meat. Bacteriocin from different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum has different characteristics and inhibitory spectrums. The efficiency of these bacteriocins is expected to equal that of nisin, which is also a natural preservative3.
Based on above mentioned scenario, researchers decided to conduct a new study which aimed to assess the characteristics of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum and their effects on sausage quality4. The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of beef sausages supplemented with various preservatives i.e. control, 0.3% nitrate and 0.3% bacteriocin for various periods in a cold temperature (4-6°C) was investigated. Parameters measured included: Acidity, water binding activity, water activity and total acid number4.
The water content of the sausages was lower than that of the fresh meat since the heating induced water evaporation. The water content of the sausages treated with bacteriocin 0.3% was lower than that of the other treatments. The level of water content in the products may be affected by factors, such as raw material, additive ingredients, processing, packaging and storage. Nonetheless, the ash content of the sausages treated with bacteriocin 0.3% was higher than that of the other treatments.
The protein content in the sausage with added bacteriocin was also higher than that of the other treatments. Sausages supplemented with nitrite still include residues, while the nitrite residue in the bacteriocin sausage is low. Nitrite residues may produce nitrosamine compounds when consumed in excessive amounts or continuously5.
It can be concluded that bacteriocin purified from Lactobacillus plantarum was effective as a bio-preservative. It could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli pathogenic bacteria on beef sausage until after 6 days of storage time, which is better than sausages treated with nitrite. The result showed that bacteriocin could replace nitrite as a preservative for up to 6 days of storage time.
Bacteriocin, Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, bio-preservatives, beef sausage, meat,storage time, Nitrite residues, nitrosamine compounds, raw material, additive ingredients, processing, packaging and storage.
- Kramlich, W.E., 1971. Sausage Products. In: The Science of Meat and Meat Products, Price, J.F. and B.S. Schweigert (Eds.). H. Freeman and Co., San Fransisco.
- Cotter, P.D., C. Hill and R.P. Ross, 2005. Bacteriocins: Developing innate immunity for food. Rev. Microbiol., 3: 777-788.
- Hata, T., R. Tanaka and S. Ohmomo, 2010. Isolation and characterization of plantaricin ASM1: A new bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum A-1. J. Food Microbiol., 137: 94-99.
- Arief, I.I., Wulandari, Z., Sinaga, E.S. and Dea M.S., 2017. Application of Purified Bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5 as a Bio-preservative of Beef Sausage. J. Nutr., 16: 444-450.
- Honikel, K.O., 2008. The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products. Meat Sci., 78: 68-76.