In plants, natural dyes and pigments are present in the form of chlorophyll, carotenoids, tannins and anthocyanins, which are all unstable following exposure to heat, light or variations in pH. Nonetheless, these pigments are generally safe for consumption and have not been shown to have negative health effects.
Currently, synthetic dyes continue to be widely used to enhance food colors. However, the presence of added synthetic dyes can contribute to unfavorable impressions by consumers and may have a negative impact on health. As such, natural dyes are needed to provide attractive food colorings that can be safely consumed over the long-term1.
Fruits and fruit rinds from Asian melastome, java plum and mangosteen plants contain various natural pigments. These pigments arise during plant reproduction processes that occur after the flowers wilt. These fruits will split upon ripening and have pulp that is dark purple with orange seeds. The dark purple color of the fruit indicates the presence of anthocyanins.
It was reported that java plum plants are rich in anthocyanin, glucoside and kaempferol. On the other hand, mangosteen fruit rind is red to purple in color and also contains anthocyanins2. The outer rind of mangosteen fruits has anthocyanin levels that are higher than the inner part of mangosteen fruit, which is pink in color3.
In this context it was found that Pelargonidin-3-glucoside chloride was not found in any of the three fruits tested. Mangosteen rind samples lacked all of the three anthocyanins tested. Malvidin-3-5-diglucoside chloride was present only in java plum fruit rind, whereas, cyanidin-3-0-glucoside chloride was only found in Asian melastome fruit4.
The concentration of malvidin-3-5-diglucoside chloride was higher in java plum fruit than the juice. Similarly, cyanidin-3-0-glucoside chloride concentrations were higher in Asian melastome fruit compared to the juice. The concentration of cyanidin-3-0-glucoside chloride in Asian melastome was much higher than that of malvidin-3-5-diglucoside chloride in java plums.
The addition of juices from java plums and Asian melastome resulted in linear increases in the concentration of malvidin-3-5-diglucoside chloride and cyanidin-3-0-glucoside chloride in “kolang-kaling” jam.
Pelargonidin-3-glucoside chloride, malvidin-3-5-diglucoside chloride, cyanidin-3-0-glucoside chloride, Malastoma melabathricum fruit, Syzygium cumini fruit rind, Garcinia mangostana fruit rind, “kolang-kaling” jam,
- Swami, S.B., N.S.J. Thakor, M.M. Patil and P.M. Haldankar, 2012. Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.)): A review of its food and medicinal uses. Food Nutr. Sci., 3: 1100-1117.
- Saptarini, N.M., Fathi and F.S. Ferry, 2013. The effect of acetic acid in anthocyanins extraction from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci., 4: 213-220.
- Chaovanalikit, A., A. Mingmuang, T. Kitbunluewit, N. Choldumrongkool, J. Sondee and S. Chupratum, 2012. Anthocyanin and total phenolics content of mangosteen and effect of processing on the quality of mangosteen products. Food Res. J., 19: 1047-1053.
- Rina Y, Kesuma S., Kohnm, M. Thammawon, TutyT., Khandra F. and Daimon Syukri, 2017. Cyanidin, Malvidin and Pelargonidin Content of “Kolang-kaling” Jams Made with Juices from Asian Melastome (Melastoma malabathricum) Fruit, Java Plum (Syzygium cumini) Fruit Rind or Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Fruit Rind. J. Nutr., 16: 850-856.