Plants have been traditionally used in medicinal preparations. Mankind relied solely on healing properties of various plants in ancient times. Use of such plants in treatments proved effective. modern science has revolutionized traditional methods of treatment. Diseases are studied thoroughly with scientific research. It also helps with the development of treatments.
Modern treatments are different from the ones used in traditional medicine. Drugs are developed in pharmaceutical industries. Such drugs are composed of synthetic substances prepared beforehand. Many healing properties of naturally occurring plants are also utilized in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals industries.
Medicinal plants are known for their composition of chemical constituents. These substances contribute to the medicinal efficacy of plants. Such plants produce secondary metabolites that have healing properties. Tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids are some of the important secondary metabolites produced by medicinal plants.
The singular most important role of such secondary metabolites is antibiotic. Replacing organic substances with synthetic in industrial preparations prevents many side-effects.
Ambarella (Spondiaspinnata) is known for its useful secondary metabolites. They contain antibiotic properties. This plant belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. Indonesia is one of the many countries using medicinal plants in traditional medicine. Ambarella is known as kedondong in Indonesia. Its apical leaf is traditionally used in antibacterial treatments. The extract obtained from its leaves contains saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, carbohydrates and steroids with an antibacterial activity.
It is an extremely beneficial plant. Its different parts contain various compounds of great value. Its fruit extract includes oleanolic acid, amino acids, glycine, cystine, serine, alanine, leucine and polysaccharides. The bark extract contains flavonoids and phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity.
For use in the pharmaceutical industry, the composition of chemical constituents has to be constant. Production of beneficial compounds in plants is affected by many factors. Genetics, climate and growth place can reduce the composition of secondary metabolites.
SubehanLallo and his team studied the effect of leaf position during growth on the antibacterial activity of Spondiaspinnata. The experiments were conducted using leaves collected from Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia in September, 2018. The research concluded different effects of each leaf position during growth. The team published their research article in the Asian Journal of Plant Sciences.