Palm Oil Industry By-Products; an Alternative Feed for Animals

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Palm Oil Industry By-Products; an Alternative Feed for Animals

One of main issues in animal breeding is good quality feed availability. Since good quality foodstuff is expensive; breeders cannot afford the good quality feed stuff and therefore, resort to rough feeding. It is required for feed ingredients to be used as a substitution for forage or concentrate for livestock with the goal of increasing the quality and amount of milk production and livestock productivity at low cost1.

Foodstuffs that can be used as alternative feed include palm oil industry by-products [palm kernel cake (PKC), palm oil sludge (POS)] and paitan (Tithonia diversifolia, TD), all of which can be used as a roughage for dairy goats1.

Palm oil by-products are non-conventional feed stuffs that have the potential to feed livestock, especially ruminants. Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the palm kernel extraction process. Palm oil sludge (POS) is a solid waste solution produced during the process of extortion and extraction of palm oil. Palm kernel meal is derived from the palm kernel and has the highest nutritional value for animal feed.

In addition to palm oil industry by-products, paitan (TD) is a plant that has the potential to serve as an alternative feed for livestock, especially for goats. The TD plant grows and spreads throughout Indonesia. The TD plants are mostly wasted, although some are used as compost or natural pesticides. The TD plants have not yet been widely used as animal feed.

The above mentioned backdrop motivated the researchers to conduct a new study aimed to evaluate the production and quality of Etawa breed goat raw milk using palm oil industry waste and paitan plants as an early feed2.

Application of several treatment groups was done. Based on the results of this study, it was found that the optimal treatment with palm oil industry by-product and paitan plants in the feed of Etawa crossbreed goats was treatment D (50% paitan+25% tofu+25% palm oil concentrate). This treatment not only increased milk production in the EC goat but also maintained the quality of milk produced as measured by protein and lactose concentration.

The milk protein content in each treatment group was highly dependent on the presence of the same paitan plant in each treatment. The available protein and crude fiber content was insufficient to increase milk protein content. Only forage feeding can affect the quality of the milk produced.

The study demonstrated that use of palm oil industry waste and paitan plants as an early feed could be beneficial for ruminants that consume forage-based waste from oil palm plantations and paitan. This will help researchers to uncover the critical functions of the palm oil industry waste and paitan plants in the rations of Etawa goats, resulting in full utilization of the nutrients in the palm oil and paitan plants by the rumen microbes.


Palm oil industry by-products, paitan, Etawa crossbreed, milk production, milk quality, rumen microbes, nutrients utilization, protein content, crossbreed goats, treatment groups, Palm oil sludge, lactose concentration.


  1. Jamarun, N., & Satria, B. (2016). Role of Probiotics in Improving Ration Digestibility Based on Palm Oil Industry by Product on Etawa Cross Bred Dairy Goat. Abs. Sci. Eng., 12, 1-6.
  2. Arief, Elihasridas, SimelSomen, Elly Roza, Roni Pazla and Rizqan , 2018. Production and Quality of Etawa Raw Milk Using Palm Oil Industry Waste and Paitan Plants as an Early Feed. J. Nutr., 17: 399-404.