Palm oil supplemented with other feed stuffs enhances the productivity in Cattle Farming


Palm oil supplemented with other feed stuffs enhances the productivity in Cattle Farming

Animals have been a vital part of our food science since ancient times. We used them to obtain milk, meat, eggs, wool, silk, and also as labor. The increasing human population is escalating the demand for their food, clothing, shelter etc. Animal husbandry includes poultry farming, cattle farming, fisheries, apiculture, etc. Cattle farming involve rearing and managing two types of animals, one is for milk and meat and this type is known as dairy animals like buffalo, cow, goat, etc. while the second type is kept for labor purposes like irrigation, ploughing, etc. and this type is called draught animals.

The system of cattle farming for commercial purposes must be low-cost to be economically viable because the production period is extended, particularly in the cow-calf production system. These animals are also called ‘Ruminants’ because these animals have a digestive system that is uniquely different from humans. They have four compartments to the stomach instead of one. The rumen is the largest section from these four compartments and considered as the main digestive center. The basal feed of cows is forage that naturally grows and is very diverse in tropical regions.

In cattle forage, Fats and oils are used as energy sources, to supply dietary essential fatty acids and the essential part of the animal feed and its quantity depends upon the species and its digestive physiology of the cattle. The livestock sector consumes about 33% of global cereal grain production and the animal nutrition industry consumes between 8 and 10 million tons of fats and oils per anum.

The production of dry matter forage on oil palm plantations include essential nutrient contents like crude protein, extract ether, crude fiber, and nitrogen free extract. Warly et al. (2017) studied that a proportion of 60% concentrate and 40% oil palm fronds leads to the higher digestibility of nutrients and apparent bio-availability of minerals by reducing mineral deficiencies. Research conducted by Eny Endrawati et al. (2020) appeared in the Pakistan Journal of Nutation stated that Bali cow fed only forage from oil palm plantations did not consume enough to meet their nutrient requirements; additional nutrients are needed regardless of the pregnancy status of the cows. The researchers concluded that oil palm plantations can be used as grazing areas for ruminant animals but for optimum productivity, they must be supplemented with other feedstuffs, which may be beneficial for cattle farmers.