Pesticides have become a constant source of health hazards for fish population

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Pesticides have become a constant source of health hazards for fish population

Pesticides are beneficial for mankind as they amplify food production and control the vectors of man as well as animal diseases. While on the other hand, application of these pollutants has posed potential health hazards to the aquatic life including fishes1.

Fish is regarded as the most significant and fundamental link in the food chain of ecosystem as well as the inland fisheries are significant sources of protein in a nation’s diet. Therefore, detailed information about pesticide effects on fishes is vital for fish conservation and fisheries development2.

A lot of pesticides have been reported to produce several biochemical changes in fish. Accordingly, Oreochromis mossambicus (a fish species) exhibit declined amount of protein, carbohydrate as well as lipid content in the tissues including brain, kidney, gill, liver and muscles upon exposure to organochlorine as well as carbamate pesticides3.

Proteins are considered as the main effectors molecules of all living systems. Moreover, any responses to environmental, physiological or pathological conditions are reflected by alterations in protein activity or content4.

Sub lethal concentration of cadmium and diazinon can cause slight reduction in strength of proteins in the muscle and gills of O. mossambicus. These protein fractions could be stress proteins, which indicate that these proteins were highly affected by the stress caused by the pesticides5.

These facts urged scientists for carrying out a new study to find out the effect of pesticide-acetamiprid on electrophoretic protein patterns of brain, liver, as well as gill tissues of O. mossambicus. For this purpose, scientists calculated the lethal concentration (LC50) of acetamiprid tested fish species through probit analysis6.

During this experiment, the considerable modulation of insecticide stress showed that these compounds can possess direct or indirect interactions with corresponding genes in fish species, under examination. Moreover, scientists noticed the changes of protein bands in various tissues of the insecticide treated fish which could serve as sensitive biochemical indicators of acetamiprid pollution in the aquatic environment. This process can ultimately assist in water quality control and management.

Conclusively, long term exposure to acetamiprid poses a constant health hazard for the fish population. Hence, aquatic system and the poisonous effect of pesticides on fish should be monitored properly.

References:

  1. Malla, F.A., G. Sharma and S. Singh, 2009. Chlorpyrifos pesticide toxicity on erythrocyte sedimentation rate in fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch.). Med., 1: 54-55.
  2. Banaee, M., A.R. Mirvagefei, G.R. Rafei and B.M. Amiri, 2008. Effect of sub-lethal diazinon concentrations on blood plasma biochemistryl. J. Environ. Res., 2: 189-198.
  3. Raj, S.J. and B. Joseph, 2015. Impact of acetamiprid toxicity on biochemical biomarkers (protein and carbohydrate) in some tissues of the fish Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Zool. Res., 11: 222-227.
  4. Bradley, B.P., E.A. Shrader, D.G. Kimmel and J.C. Meiller, 2002. Protein expression signatures: An application of proteomics. Environ. Res., 54: 373-377.
  5. Muthukumaravel, K., P. Kumarasamy, A. Amsath and G. Paulraj, 2007. Toxic effect of cadmium on the electrophoretic protein patterns of gill and muscle of Oreochromis mossambicus. E-J. Chem., 4: 284-286.
  6. Justin Raj and Baby Joseph, 2017. Impact of Acetamiprid Toxicity on Electrophoretic Patterns in Liver, Brain and Gill Tissues of the Fish Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Zool. Res., 13: 120-124.

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